EMS World

AUG 2011

EMS World Magazine is the most authoritative source in the world for clinical and educational material designed to improve the delivery of prehospital emergency medical care.

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Page 48 of 71

CE ARTICLE The Innate Immune System The innate immune system is comprised of cells and processes that defend the human host from infection in a nonspecifi c manner that does not result in long-lasting immunity. Because it does not identify a specifi c foreign pathogen, innate immunity is sometimes referred to as nonspecifi c immunity. Innate immu- nity is thought to be an evolutionarily older defense mechanism (compared to acquired immunity) and is found not only in humans, but is the dominant immune system in other organisms such as plants, insects and fungi. The major functions of the innate immune system include: • Local infl ammation and recruit- ment of immune cells to the site of an infection via the production of specialized chemical mediators called cytokines. • Activation of the complement cascade, which is composed of plasma proteins that are synthesized in the liver by hepatocytes. These plasma proteins trigger the recruitment of infl amma- tory cells, identify and “tag” pathogens for elimination, disrupt the plasma membrane of infected cells, thereby killing the pathogen, and help eliminate antigen- antibody complexes. • Identifi cation of pathogens in human tissues, organs, blood and lymph by specialized white blood cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells and natural killer cells. • Activation of the acquired immune system via the process of antigen presentation. THE ACQUIRED IMMUNE SYSTEM The acquired immune system is composed of highly specialized cells and processes that defend the human host from infection in a highly specifi c manner that results in long-lasting immunity to specifi c pathogens. In evolutionary terms, it is newer than the innate immune system and is found in vertebrates, including humans. The major functions of the adap- tive immune system include: • Identifying and eliminating patho- gens utilizing the process of antigen presentation. EVS Mobility 1 Stainless Tracking System – Secures the EMT while giving mobility to work on the patient • Generating a specifi c immune system response to eliminate the specifi c pathogen identifi ed. • Development of an “immuno- logic memory” in which the immune system “remembers” each pathogen it encounters via an antibody specifi c to that pathogen. This allows for a faster response the second time the immune system encounters a pathogen. Acquired immunity accomplishes its functions via the actions of T lymphocytes (T cells) and B lymphocytes (B cells). T cells provide a defense against abnormal cells (such as tumors) and cells infected with a pathogen through a process termed Follow the Leader in Seating Safety & Innovation Since 1993, EVS Ltd. has created more safety seating products than anyone else in the EMS industry, by investing in research and development and dynamic testing. The Mobility 1 Tracking System • Allows access to equipment and patient while remaining belted into the seat • Place in any location to meet the needs of the EMT • Up to 48” long stainless steel track with locking increments every 4” • Tested to meet or exceed all applicable FMVSS or Triple-K standards • Available with advanced belting systems (96 +LJK 0RELOLW\ 5HVWUDLQW +05 \ +05 V\VWHP SURYLGHV PRUH ÁH[LELOLW\ WR ZRUN RQ SDWLHQW QHHGV H W QHHGV Keep your EMT safe! Specify EVS’ advanced integrated restraint systems! Emergency Vehicle Seating (800)364-3218 · International (574)233-5707 E-mail: evssales@evsltd.com · www.evsltd.com Our only business is seating safety for the EMS industry! For More Information Circle 31 on Reader Service Card See Us at EMS Expo Booth #713 EMSWORLD.com | AUGUST 2011 45 48” long track IMPROVED DESIGN NEW & NE

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